A stool culture is a test on a stool sample to find germs (such as bacteria or a fungus) that can cause an infection. A sample of stool is added to a substance that promotes the growth of germs. If no germs grow, the culture is negative. If germs that can cause infection grow, the culture is positive. The type of germ may be identified using a microscope or chemical tests. Sometimes other tests are done to find the right medicine for treating the infection. This is called sensitivity testing.
Depending on what your stool is being tested for, you may only need to collect one stool sample. Or you may need several stool samples over a period of days.
Why It Is Done
A stool culture is done to:
- Find the cause of symptoms. It can help explain symptoms such as severe or bloody diarrhea or an increased amount of gas. It can also help find the cause of nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, bloating, belly pain and cramping, and fever.
- Find and identify certain types of organisms that are causing infections or diseases. These include food poisoning, inflammation of the large intestine (colitis), cholera, and typhoid.
- Identify a person who may not have any symptoms of disease but who carries bacteria that can spread infection to others. This person is called a carrier. A person who is a carrier and who handles food is likely to infect others.
- Find out if treatment for an infection has worked as it should.
How To Prepare
Tell your doctor if you have recently taken antibiotics, traveled out of the country, or drunk untreated water. And let the doctor know if you had a recent test with contrast material, such as a barium swallow or a barium enema.
How It Is Done
Stool samples can be collected at home. Or you may need to go to your doctor's office, a medical clinic, or the hospital. If you collect the samples at home, you may be given a special container.
You may need to collect more than one sample. Follow the same steps for each sample.
To collect the sample:
- Urinate before you collect the stool. That way, you won't get any urine in the stool sample. Do not urinate while you pass the stool.
- Put on gloves before handling your stool. Stool can contain germs that spread infection. Wash your hands after you take off your gloves.
- Pass stool (but no urine) into a dry container. You may be given a plastic basin that you can place under the toilet seat to catch the stool.
- Either solid or liquid stool can be collected.
- If you have diarrhea, a large plastic bag taped to the toilet seat may make the collection process easier. The bag is then placed in a plastic container.
- Do not collect the sample from the toilet bowl.
- Do not mix toilet paper, water, or soap with the sample.
- Place the lid on the container. Label it with your name, your doctor's name, and the date the stool was collected. If you need more than one sample, use a separate container for each sample. Collect a sample only once a day unless your doctor gives you other directions.
Take the sample to your doctor's office or the lab as soon as you can. You may need to take your sample to the lab within a certain time, usually within 30 minutes or less of collecting it. Tell your doctor if you think you may have trouble getting the sample to the lab on time.
Samples from babies and young children may be taken from diapers (if the stool does not have urine mixed with it).
Sometimes a stool sample is collected using a rectal swab. The swab is inserted into the rectum, rotated gently, and then pulled out. It is placed in a clean, dry container and sent to the lab right away.
How It Feels
There is no pain from collecting a stool sample. If you are constipated, straining to pass stool may be painful.
If your doctor collects the stool sample using a cotton swab, you may feel some pressure or discomfort as the swab is inserted into your rectum.
Any stool sample may contain germs that can spread disease. Make sure to carefully wash your hands and use careful handling techniques to avoid spreading infection.
No disease-causing bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses are present or grow in the culture.
If bacteria are found in the culture, sensitivity testing may be done to help choose the best treatment.
Your stool also may be looked at under a microscope to check for parasites such as Giardia.