A heart biopsy is a procedure used to take small samples of your heart's tissue for testing. It may be done to check for rejection after a heart transplant or to test for heart problems.
It may seem scary to remove tissue from your heart. But the samples are very small. They should not affect how your heart works.
Your doctor put a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a blood vessel in your neck, groin, or arm. The catheter helped guide a small tool into one of the chambers of your heart. Your doctor used this tool to take tissue samples. Your doctor may also have injected a dye into your blood vessel and heart. The dye shows up on a screen so your doctor can see where to move the tool. Or your doctor may have used an ultrasound or echocardiogram to see where to move the catheter.
You may have swelling, bruising, or a small lump around the site where the catheter went into your body. You can do light activities around the house. But do not do anything strenuous until your doctor says it is okay. This lets the catheter site heal.
This care sheet gives you a general idea about how long it will take for you to recover. But each person recovers at a different pace. Follow the steps below to get better as quickly as possible.
How can you care for yourself at home?
- If the doctor gave you a sedative:
- For 24 hours, don't do anything that requires attention to detail, such as going to work, making important decisions, or signing any legal documents. It takes time for the medicine's effects to completely wear off.
- For your safety, do not drive or operate any machinery that could be dangerous. Wait until the medicine wears off and you can think clearly and react easily.
- Do not do strenuous exercise and do not lift, pull, or push anything heavy until your doctor says it is okay. This may be for a couple of days. If you had a biopsy in the left side of your heart, your doctor might recommend that you wait several days before doing anything strenuous to let the catheter site heal. You can walk around the house and do light activity, such as cooking.
- If the catheter was placed in your groin, try not to walk up stairs for the first couple of days.
- If you had dye injected, drink plenty of fluids to help your body flush out the dye. If you have kidney, heart, or liver disease and have to limit fluids, talk with your doctor before you increase the amount of fluids you drink.
- You can eat your normal diet. If your stomach is upset, try bland, low-fat foods like plain rice, broiled chicken, toast, and yogurt.
- Your doctor will tell you if and when you can restart your medicines. He or she will also give you instructions about taking any new medicines.
- If you take aspirin or some other blood thinner, be sure to talk to your doctor. He or she will tell you if and when to start taking this medicine again. Make sure that you understand exactly what your doctor wants you to do.
- Call your doctor if you think you are having a problem with your medicine.
Care of the catheter site
- For 1 or 2 days, keep the bandage over the spot where the catheter was inserted. The bandage probably will fall off in this time.
- Put ice or a cold pack on the area for 10 to 20 minutes at a time to help with soreness or swelling. Put a thin cloth between the ice and your skin.
- You may shower 24 to 48 hours after the procedure, if your doctor okays it. Pat the incision dry.
- Do not soak the catheter site until it is healed. Don't take a bath for 1 week, or until your doctor tells you it is okay.
- Watch for bleeding from the site. A small amount of blood (up to the size of a quarter) on the bandage can be normal.
- If you are bleeding, lie down and press on the area for 15 minutes to try to make it stop. If the bleeding doesn't stop, call your doctor or seek immediate medical care.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
When should you call for help?
Call 911 anytime you think you may need emergency care. For example, call if:
- You passed out (lost consciousness).
- You have symptoms of sudden heart failure. These may include:
- Severe trouble breathing.
- Coughing up pink, foamy mucus.
- You have symptoms of a heart attack. These may include:
- Chest pain or pressure, or a strange feeling in the chest.
- Shortness of breath.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Pain, pressure, or a strange feeling in the back, neck, jaw, or upper belly or in one or both shoulders or arms.
- Lightheadedness or sudden weakness.
- A fast or irregular heartbeat.
After you call 911, the operator may tell you to chew 1 adult-strength or 2 to 4 low-dose aspirin. Wait for an ambulance. Do not try to drive yourself.
Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:
- You are bleeding from the area where the catheter was put in.
- You have a fast-growing, painful lump at the catheter site.
- You have symptoms of infection, such as:
- Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness.
- Red streaks leading from the area.
- Pus draining from the catheter site.
- A fever.
- Your leg, arm, or hand is painful, looks blue, or feels cold, numb, or tingly.
- You have new or changed symptoms of heart failure, such as:
- New or increased shortness of breath.
- New or worse swelling in your legs, ankles, or feet.
- Sudden weight gain, such as more than 2 to 3 pounds in a day or 5 pounds in a week. (Your doctor may suggest a different range of weight gain.)
- Feeling dizzy or lightheaded or like you may faint.
- Feeling so tired or weak that you can't do your usual activities.
- Not sleeping well. Shortness of breath wakes you at night. You need extra pillows to prop yourself up to breathe easier.
Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor if you have any problems.