Bones grow and continue getting stronger and denser from birth through our late 20s. Gradual bone loss begins at mid-life and is a natural part of aging. When bone loss is severe, this is called osteoporosis.
Both men and women can have osteoporosis, but women are at greater risk because generally their bones are lighter to begin with. People with osteoporosis have bones that are brittle and break (fracture) more easily. About 15 percent of older women will break a bone in the hip or spine.
What Increases My Risk of Developing Osteoporosis?
You are at a higher risk for developing osteoporosis if you:
- Have broken a wrist, ankle, or shoulder after a simple fall
- Weigh less than 130 pounds
- Take certain medicines, such as prednisone or some seizure medicines
- Have a chronic illness, such as type 1 diabetes or disabling rheumatoid arthritis
- Are of Caucasian ancestry
- Have a mother who has broken a hip
How Do I Know if I Have Osteoporosis?
There are tests to find out how dense your bones are. The best test is a special X-ray that measures your bone density at the hip and spine. This test is called a bone density test (DEXA). The results of this test are reported as a T score, which compares your bone density to the bone density of a 30-year-old woman.
Should I Get a Bone Density Test (DEXA)?
The risk of osteoporotic fractures is low in women under the age of 65. Kaiser Permanente does not generally recommend a bone density test for these women unless they are at an increased risk for osteoporosis because of a chronic illness or long-term use of certain medicines.
If you are a woman 65 or older, a woman between 60 and 65 with increased risk factors, or a woman over 50 with a history of fractures, you should talk to your doctor about having a bone density test. Testing is also recommended for men over 70.
What Are My Chances of Breaking A Bone if I Have Osteoporosis?
Having osteoporosis does not necessarily mean that you will break a bone in the future. However, the risk of breaking a bone increases for women who have trouble walking, lifting themselves out of a chair, or have certain chronic conditions.
Your risk for breaking a bone also increases as you age. Almost all hip, and most spine, fractures occur after age 70.
Can Medicine Help Strengthen My Bones and Prevent Fractures?
There are several medicines for people who either have osteoporosis or are known to be at high risk of breaking bones. Talk to your doctor about whether or not medicine is right for you.
Bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax) build bone mass in people who have osteoporosis and lower their risk of breaking bones.
Raloxifene is an estrogen-like drug that helps protect against bone loss and spine fractures, but has not yet been shown to prevent hip fractures.
What Can I Do to Prevent Osteoporosis?
Even if you already have osteoporosis, the following things can help slow further bone loss:
Smoking weakens bones.
Get enough calcium and vitamin D.
Healthy older adults who get enough calcium and vitamin D have fewer broken bones. Most women do not get enough calcium or vitamin D in their diets and need to take supplements. It’s recommended you get 1,200 mg of calcium a day, including what you get in your diet, and 1,000iu of vitamin D per day.
Ways to get calcium and vitamin D include:
- Dairy products and calcium-fortified juices have the most calcium. Dark green vegetables, beans, fortified cereals, and some tofu products also contain calcium.
- You can get vitamin D from fortified milk; orange juice; milk alternatives like soy, almond, or rice milk; fatty fish; and egg yolks.
- Your body makes vitamin D when your skin is exposed to the sun. As you get older, your body makes less vitamin D.
- All Kaiser Permanente pharmacies carry calcium and vitamin D supplements that you can buy without a prescription.
Be physically active.
Weight-bearing and strength-training exercises help build and maintain healthy bones. Walk, run, hike, dance, climb stairs, or lift weights to keep your bones strong. Activities that promote balance to help prevent falls are also important. Examples include tai chi, yoga, dance, weight lifting, and sports such as bowling, golf, and tennis.
Weak bones often break as a result of a fall. To prevent falls, avoid high heeled or loose-fitting shoes; loose throw rugs; slippery bathtubs; and wet, mossy, or icy steps. Avoid drinking too much alcohol.
Turn on lights instead of walking in dark, move things you could trip on, and use non-slip bath mats and bathroom grab rails.
With a little extra care an attention, you can help avoid the accidental falls that lead to most osteoporosis-related injuries.