Migraines are painful, throbbing headaches. They often start on one side of the head. They may cause nausea and vomiting and make you sensitive to light, sound, or smell. Some people may have only a few migraines throughout life. Others have them as often as several times a month.
The goal of treatment is to reduce the number of migraines you have and relieve your symptoms. Even with treatment, you may continue to have migraines. You play an important role in dealing with your headaches. Work on avoiding things that seem to trigger your migraines. When you feel a headache coming on, act quickly to stop it before it gets worse.
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
How can you care for yourself at home?
- Do not drive if you have taken a prescription pain medicine.
- Rest in a quiet, dark room until your headache is gone. Close your eyes and try to relax or go to sleep. Do not watch TV or read.
- Put a cold, moist cloth or cold pack on the painful area for 10 to 20 minutes at a time. Put a thin cloth between the cold pack and your skin.
- Have someone gently massage your neck and shoulders.
- Take your medicines exactly as prescribed. Call your doctor if you think you are having a problem with your medicine. You will get more details on the specific medicines your doctor prescribes.
- Don't take medicine for headache pain too often. Talk to your doctor if you are taking medicine more than 2 days a week to stop a headache. Taking too much pain medicine can lead to more headaches. These are called medicine-overuse headaches.
To prevent migraines
- Keep a headache diary so you can figure out what triggers your headaches. Avoiding triggers may help you prevent headaches. Record when each headache began, how long it lasted, and what the pain was like. Write down any other symptoms you had with the headache. These may include nausea, flashing lights or dark spots, or sensitivity to bright light or loud noise. Note if the headache occurred near your period. List anything that might have triggered the headache. Triggers may include certain foods (chocolate, cheese, wine) or odors, smoke, bright light, stress, or lack of sleep.
- If your doctor has prescribed medicine for your migraines, take it as directed. You may have medicine that you take only when you get a migraine and medicine that you take all the time to help prevent migraines.
- If your doctor has prescribed medicine for when you get a headache, take it at the first sign of a migraine, unless your doctor has given you other instructions.
- If your doctor has prescribed medicine to prevent migraines, take it exactly as prescribed. Call your doctor if you think you are having a problem with your medicine.
- Find healthy ways to deal with stress. Migraines are most common during or right after stressful times. Try finding ways to reduce stress like practicing mindfulness or deep breathing exercises.
- Get regular sleep and exercise. But be careful to not push yourself too hard during exercise. It may trigger a headache.
- Eat regular meals, and avoid foods and drinks that often trigger migraines. These include chocolate and alcohol, especially red wine and port. Chemicals used in food, such as aspartame and monosodium glutamate (MSG), also can trigger migraines. So can some food additives, such as those found in hot dogs, bacon, cold cuts, aged cheeses, and pickled foods.
- Limit caffeine by not drinking too much coffee, tea, or soda. Do not quit caffeine suddenly, because that can also give you migraines.
- Do not smoke or allow others to smoke around you. If you need help quitting, talk to your doctor about stop-smoking programs and medicines. These can increase your chances of quitting for good.
- If you are taking birth control pills or hormone therapy, talk to your doctor about whether they are triggering your migraines.
When should you call for help?
Call 911 anytime you think you may need emergency care. For example, call if:
- You have symptoms of a stroke. These may include:
- Sudden numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of movement in your face, arm, or leg, especially on only one side of your body.
- Sudden vision changes.
- Sudden trouble speaking.
- Sudden confusion or trouble understanding simple statements.
- Sudden problems with walking or balance.
- A sudden, severe headache that is different from past headaches.
Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:
- You develop a fever and a stiff neck.
- You have new nausea and vomiting, or you cannot keep down food or liquids.
Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor if:
- You have a headache that does not get better within 1 or 2 days.
- Your headaches get worse or happen more often.
Where can you learn more?
Enter V975 in the search box to learn more about "Recurring Migraine Headache: Care Instructions".